@Dosa. (Sins)

{Berikut adalah kesalahan-kesalahan dosa yang dijelaskan di dalam Al Quraan apabila dilakukan. Kita juga akan berdosa sekiranya kita tidak melaksanakan perintah seperti yang telah diarahkan di dalam Al Quraan seperti Solat, Puasa, Zakat, Sabar dsb.}

Janji Allah SWT.

Surah 4. An-Nisa, Verse 31:

إِن تَجْتَنِبُوا كَبَائِرَ مَا تُنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ نُكَفِّرْ عَنكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَنُدْخِلْكُم مُّدْخَلًا كَرِيمًا

Indonesian:
Jika kamu menjauhi dosa-dosa besar di antara dosa-dosa yang dilarang kamu mengerjakannya, niscaya Kami hapus kesalahan-kesalahanmu (dosa-dosamu yang kecil) dan Kami masukkan kamu ke tempat yang mulia (surga).

Shakir:
If you shun the great sins which you are forbidden, We will do away with your small sins and cause you to enter an honorable place of entering.

1. Syirik.

Surah 4. An-Nisa, Verse 48:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ افْتَرَىٰ إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا

Indonesian:
Sesungguhnya Allah tidak akan mengampuni dosa syirik, dan Dia mengampuni segala dosa yang selain dari (syirik) itu, bagi siapa yang dikehendaki-Nya. Barangsiapa yang mempersekutukan Allah, maka sungguh ia telah berbuat dosa yang besar.

Shakir:
Surely Allah does not forgive that anything should be associated with Him, and forgives what is besides that to whomsoever He pleases; and whoever associates anything with Allah, he devises indeed a great sin.

Surah 4. An-Nisa, Verse 116:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا

Indonesian:
Sesungguhnya Allah tidak mengampuni dosa mempersekutukan (sesuatu) dengan Dia, dan dia mengampuni dosa yang selain syirik bagi siapa yang dikehendaki-Nya. Barangsiapa yang mempersekutukan (sesuatu) dengan Allah, maka sesungguhnya ia telah tersesat sejauh-jauhnya.

Shakir:
Surely Allah does not forgive that anything should be associated with Him, and He forgives what is besides this to whom He pleases; and whoever associates anything with Allah, he indeed strays off into a remote error.

2. Bunuh.

Surah 4. An-Nisa, Verse 92:

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ أَن يَقْتُلَ مُؤْمِنًا إِلَّا خَطَأً وَمَن قَتَلَ مُؤْمِنًا خَطَأً فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ وَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ إِلَّا أَن يَصَّدَّقُوا فَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوْمٍ عَدُوٍّ لَّكُمْ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ وَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُم مِّيثَاقٌ فَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ وَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ تَوْبَةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

Indonesian:
Dan tidak layak bagi seorang mukmin membunuh seorang mukmin (yang lain), kecuali karena tersalah (tidak sengaja), dan barangsiapa membunuh seorang mukmin karena tersalah (hendaklah) ia memerdekakan seorang hamba sahaya yang beriman serta membayar diat yang diserahkan kepada keluarganya (si terbunuh itu), kecuali jika mereka (keluarga terbunuh) bersedekah. Jika ia (si terbunuh) dari kaum (kafir) yang ada perjanjian (damai) antara mereka dengan kamu, maka (hendaklah si pembunuh) membayar diat yang diserahkan kepada keluarganya (si terbunuh) serta memerdekakan hamba sahaya yang beriman. Barangsiapa yang tidak memperolehnya, maka hendaklah ia (si pembunuh) berpuasa dua bulan berturut-turut untuk penerimaan taubat dari pada Allah. Dan adalah Allah Maha Mengetahui lagi Maha Bijaksana.

Shakir:
And it does not behoove a believer to kill a believer except by mistake, and whoever kills a believer by mistake, he should free a believing slave, and blood-money should be paid to his people unless they remit it as alms; but if he be from a tribe hostile to you and he is a believer, the freeing of a believing slave (suffices), and if he is from a tribe between whom and you there is a convenant, the blood-money should be paid to his people along with the freeing of a believing slave; but he who cannot find (a slave) should fast for two months successively: a penance from Allah, and Allah is Knowing, Wise.

Surah 4. An-Nisa, Verse 93:

وَمَن يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِنًا مُّتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاؤُهُ جَهَنَّمُ خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَغَضِبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَلَعَنَهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُ عَذَابًا عَظِيمًا

Indonesian:
Dan barangsiapa yang membunuh seorang mukmin dengan sengaja maka balasannya ialah Jahannam, kekal ia di dalamnya dan Allah murka kepadanya, dan mengutukinya serta menyediakan azab yang besar baginya.

Shakir:
And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his punishment is hell; he shall abide in it, and Allah will send His wrath on him and curse him and prepare for him a painful chastisement.

3. Bunuh diri.

Surah 4. An-Nisa, Verse 29:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُم بَيْنَكُم بِالْبَاطِلِ إِلَّا أَن تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً عَن تَرَاضٍ مِّنكُمْ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا

Indonesian:
Hai orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah kamu saling memakan harta sesamamu dengan jalan yang batil, kecuali dengan jalan perniagaan yang berlaku dengan suka sama-suka di antara kamu. Dan janganlah kamu membunuh dirimu; sesungguhnya Allah adalah Maha Penyayang kepadamu.

Shakir:
O you who believe! do not devour your property among yourselves falsely, except that it be trading by your mutual consent; and do not kill your people; surely Allah is Merciful to you.

Surah 4. An-Nisa, Verse 30:

وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ عُدْوَانًا وَظُلْمًا فَسَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِ نَارًا وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرًا

Indonesian:
Dan barangsiapa berbuat demikian dengan melanggar hak dan aniaya, maka Kami kelak akan memasukkannya ke dalam neraka. Yang demikian itu adalah mudah bagi Allah.

Shakir:
And whoever does this aggressively and unjustly, We will soon cast him into fire; and this is easy to Allah.

4. Sihir.

Surah 2. Al-Baqara, Verse 102:

وَاتَّبَعُوا مَا تَتْلُو الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَىٰ مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَٰكِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ كَفَرُوا يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّىٰ يَقُولَا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلَا تَكْفُرْ فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْهُمَا مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ وَمَا هُم بِضَارِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلَا يَنفَعُهُمْ وَلَقَدْ عَلِمُوا لَمَنِ اشْتَرَاهُ مَا لَهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَاقٍ وَلَبِئْسَ مَا شَرَوْا بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ

Indonesian:
Dan mereka mengikuti apa yang dibaca oleh syaitan-syaitan pada masa kerajaan Sulaiman (dan mereka mengatakan bahwa Sulaiman itu mengerjakan sihir), padahal Sulaiman tidak kafir (tidak mengerjakan sihir), hanya syaitan-syaitan lah yang kafir (mengerjakan sihir). Mereka mengajarkan sihir kepada manusia dan apa yang diturunkan kepada dua orang malaikat di negeri Babil yaitu Harut dan Marut, sedang keduanya tidak mengajarkan (sesuatu) kepada seorangpun sebelum mengatakan: “Sesungguhnya kami hanya cobaan (bagimu), sebab itu janganlah kamu kafir”. Maka mereka mempelajari dari kedua malaikat itu apa yang dengan sihir itu, mereka dapat menceraikan antara seorang (suami) dengan isterinya. Dan mereka itu (ahli sihir) tidak memberi mudharat dengan sihirnya kepada seorangpun, kecuali dengan izin Allah. Dan mereka mempelajari sesuatu yang tidak memberi mudharat kepadanya dan tidak memberi manfaat. Demi, sesungguhnya mereka telah meyakini bahwa barangsiapa yang menukarnya (kitab Allah) dengan sihir itu, tiadalah baginya keuntungan di akhirat, dan amat jahatlah perbuatan mereka menjual dirinya dengan sihir, kalau mereka mengetahui.

Shakir:
And they followed what the Shaitans chanted of sorcery in the reign of Sulaiman, and Sulaiman was not an unbeliever, but the Shaitans disbelieved, they taught men sorcery and that was sent down to the two angels at Babel, Harut and Marut, yet these two taught no man until they had said, “Surely we are only a trial, therefore do not be a disbeliever.” Even then men learned from these two, magic by which they might cause a separation between a man and his wife; and they cannot hurt with it any one except with Allah’s permission, and they learned what harmed them and did not profit them, and certainly they know that he who bought it should have no share of good in the hereafter and evil was the price for which they sold their souls; had they but known this.

5. Meninggalkan Salat.

Surah 19. Maryam, Verse 59:

فَخَلَفَ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ أَضَاعُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَاتَّبَعُوا الشَّهَوَاتِ فَسَوْفَ يَلْقَوْنَ غَيًّا

Indonesian:
Maka datanglah sesudah mereka, pengganti (yang jelek) yang menyia-nyiakan shalat dan memperturutkan hawa nafsunya, maka mereka kelak akan menemui kesesatan,

Shakir:
But there came after them an evil generation, who neglected prayers and followed sensual desires, so they will meet perdition,

6. Gagal berzakat.

Surah 3. Aal-e-Imran, Verse 180:

وَلَا يَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ يَبْخَلُونَ بِمَا آتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ هُوَ خَيْرًا لَّهُم بَلْ هُوَ شَرٌّ لَّهُمْ سَيُطَوَّقُونَ مَا بَخِلُوا بِهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَلِلَّهِ مِيرَاثُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ

Indonesian:
Sekali-kali janganlah orang-orang yang bakhil dengan harta yang Allah berikan kepada mereka dari karunia-Nya menyangka, bahwa kebakhilan itu baik bagi mereka. Sebenarnya kebakhilan itu adalah buruk bagi mereka. Harta yang mereka bakhilkan itu akan dikalungkan kelak di lehernya di hari kiamat. Dan kepunyaan Allah-lah segala warisan (yang ada) di langit dan di bumi. Dan Allah mengetahui apa yang kamu kerjakan.

Shakir:
And let not those deem, who are niggardly in giving away that which Allah has granted them out of His grace, that it is good for them; nay, it is worse for them; they shall have that whereof they were niggardly made to cleave to their necks on the resurrection day; and Allah’s is the heritage of the heavens and the earth; and Allah is aware of what you do.

7. Derhaka kepada kedua ibu bapa.

Surah 17. Al-Isra, Verse 23:

وَقَضَىٰ رَبُّكَ أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوا إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا إِمَّا يَبْلُغَنَّ عِندَكَ الْكِبَرَ أَحَدُهُمَا أَوْ كِلَاهُمَا فَلَا تَقُل لَّهُمَا أُفٍّ وَلَا تَنْهَرْهُمَا وَقُل لَّهُمَا قَوْلًا كَرِيمًا

Indonesian:
Dan Tuhanmu telah memerintahkan supaya kamu jangan menyembah selain Dia dan hendaklah kamu berbuat baik pada ibu bapakmu dengan sebaik-baiknya. Jika salah seorang di antara keduanya atau kedua-duanya sampai berumur lanjut dalam pemeliharaanmu, maka sekali-kali janganlah kamu mengatakan kepada keduanya perkataan “ah” dan janganlah kamu membentak mereka dan ucapkanlah kepada mereka perkataan yang mulia.

Shakir:
And your Lord has commanded that you shall not serve (any) but Him, and goodness to your parents. If either or both of them reach old age with you, say not to them (so much as) “Ugh” nor chide them, and speak to them a generous word.

Surah 17. Al-Isra, Verse 24:

وَاخْفِضْ لَهُمَا جَنَاحَ الذُّلِّ مِنَ الرَّحْمَةِ وَقُل رَّبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيَانِي صَغِيرًا

Indonesian:
Dan rendahkanlah dirimu terhadap mereka berdua dengan penuh kesayangan dan ucapkanlah: “Wahai Tuhanku, kasihilah mereka keduanya, sebagaimana mereka berdua telah mendidik aku waktu kecil”.

Shakir:
And make yourself submissively gentle to them with compassion, and say: O my Lord! have compassion on them, as they brought me up (when I was) little.

8. Memutuskan hubungan kekeluargaan.

Surah 47. Muhammad, Verse 22:

فَهَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِن تَوَلَّيْتُمْ أَن تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَتُقَطِّعُوا أَرْحَامَكُمْ

Indonesian:
Maka apakah kiranya jika kamu berkuasa kamu akan membuat kerusakan di muka bumi dan memutuskan hubungan kekeluargaan?

Shakir:
But if you held command, you were sure to make mischief in the land and cut off the ties of kinship!

Surah 47. Muhammad, Verse 23:

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ فَأَصَمَّهُمْ وَأَعْمَىٰ أَبْصَارَهُمْ

Indonesian:
Mereka itulah orang-orang yang dilaknati Allah dan ditulikan-Nya telinga mereka dan dibutakan-Nya penglihatan mereka.

Shakir:
Those it is whom Allah has cursed so He has made them deaf and blinded their eyes.

9. Zina.

Surah 17. Al-Isra, Verse 32:

وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا الزِّنَا إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَسَاءَ سَبِيلًا

Indonesian:
Dan janganlah kamu mendekati zina; sesungguhnya zina itu adalah suatu perbuatan yang keji. Dan suatu jalan yang buruk.

Shakir:
And go not nigh to fornication; surely it is an indecency and an evil way.

10. Riba.

Surah 2. Al-Baqara, Verse 275:

الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبَا لَا يَقُومُونَ إِلَّا كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذِي يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَا وَأَحَلَّ اللَّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا فَمَن جَاءَهُ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ فَانتَهَىٰ فَلَهُ مَا سَلَفَ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Indonesian:
Orang-orang yang makan (mengambil) riba tidak dapat berdiri melainkan seperti berdirinya orang yang kemasukan syaitan lantaran (tekanan) penyakit gila. Keadaan mereka yang demikian itu, adalah disebabkan mereka berkata (berpendapat), sesungguhnya jual beli itu sama dengan riba, padahal Allah telah menghalalkan jual beli dan mengharamkan riba. Orang-orang yang telah sampai kepadanya larangan dari Tuhannya, lalu terus berhenti (dari mengambil riba), maka baginya apa yang telah diambilnya dahulu (sebelum datang larangan); dan urusannya (terserah) kepada Allah. Orang yang kembali (mengambil riba), maka orang itu adalah penghuni-penghuni neraka; mereka kekal di dalamnya.

Shakir:
Those who swallow down usury cannot arise except as one whom Shaitan has prostrated by (his) touch does rise. That is because they say, trading is only like usury; and Allah has allowed trading and forbidden usury. To whomsoever then the admonition has come from his Lord, then he desists, he shall have what has already passed, and his affair is in the hands of Allah; and whoever returns (to it)– these are the inmates of the fire; they shall abide in it.

11. Makan harta anak yatim.

Surah 4. An-Nisa, Verse 10:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَالَ الْيَتَامَىٰ ظُلْمًا إِنَّمَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ نَارًا وَسَيَصْلَوْنَ سَعِيرًا

Indonesian:
Sesungguhnya orang-orang yang memakan harta anak yatim secara zalim, sebenarnya mereka itu menelan api sepenuh perutnya dan mereka akan masuk ke dalam api yang menyala-nyala (neraka).

Shakir:
(As for) those who swallow the property of the orphans unjustly, surely they only swallow fire into their bellies and they shall enter burning fire.

12. Lari dari tugas.

Surah 8. Al-Anfal, Verse 16:

وَمَن يُوَلِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ دُبُرَهُ إِلَّا مُتَحَرِّفًا لِّقِتَالٍ أَوْ مُتَحَيِّزًا إِلَىٰ فِئَةٍ فَقَدْ بَاءَ بِغَضَبٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَمَأْوَاهُ جَهَنَّمُ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ

Indonesian:
Barangsiapa yang membelakangi mereka (mundur) di waktu itu, kecuali berbelok untuk (sisat) perang atau hendak menggabungkan diri dengan pasukan yang lain, maka sesungguhnya orang itu kembali dengan membawa kemurkaan dari Allah, dan tempatnya ialah neraka Jahannam. Dan amat buruklah tempat kembalinya.

Shakir:
And whoever shall turn his back to them on that day– unless he turn aside for the sake of fighting or withdraws to a company– then he, indeed, becomes deserving of Allah’s wrath, and his abode is hell; and an evil destination shall it be.

13. Saksi palsu.

Surah 25. Al-Furqan, Verse 72:

وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَشْهَدُونَ الزُّورَ وَإِذَا مَرُّوا بِاللَّغْوِ مَرُّوا كِرَامًا

Indonesian:
Dan orang-orang yang tidak memberikan persaksian palsu, dan apabila mereka bertemu dengan (orang-orang) yang mengerjakan perbuatan-perbuatan yang tidak berfaedah, mereka lalui (saja) dengan menjaga kehormatan dirinya.

Shakir:
And they who do not bear witness to what is false, and when they pass by what is vain, they pass by nobly.

14. Arak, Judi, Berhala dan Undi nasib.

Surah 5. Al-Maeda, Verse 90:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالْأَنصَابُ وَالْأَزْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

Translation:
Hai orang-orang yang beriman, sesungguhnya (meminum) khamar, berjudi, (berkorban untuk) berhala, mengundi nasib dengan panah, adalah termasuk perbuatan syaitan. Maka jauhilah perbuatan-perbuatan itu agar kamu mendapat keberuntungan.

Shakir:
O you who believe! intoxicants and games of chance and (sacrificing to) stones set up and (dividing by) arrows are only an uncleanness, the Shaitan’s work; shun it therefore that you may be successful.

Surah 2. Al-Baqara, Verse 219:

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَا أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ قُلِ الْعَفْوَ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَكَّرُونَ

Indonesian:
Mereka bertanya kepadamu tentang khamar dan judi. Katakanlah: “Pada keduanya terdapat dosa yang besar dan beberapa manfaat bagi manusia, tetapi dosa keduanya lebih besar dari manfaatnya”. Dan mereka bertanya kepadamu apa yang mereka nafkahkan. Katakanlah: “Yang lebih dari keperluan”. Demikianlah Allah menerangkan ayat-ayat-Nya kepadamu supaya kamu berfikir,

Shakir:
They ask you about intoxicants and games of chance. Say: In both of them there is a great sin and means of profit for men, and their sin is greater than their profit. And they ask you as to what they should spend. Say: What you can spare. Thus does Allah make clear to you the communications, that you may ponder,

Surah 5. Al-Maeda, Verse 91:

إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَن يُوقِعَ بَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَاءَ فِي الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَعَنِ الصَّلَاةِ فَهَلْ أَنتُم مُّنتَهُونَ

Indonesian:
Sesungguhnya syaitan itu bermaksud hendak menimbulkan permusuhan dan kebencian di antara kamu lantaran (meminum) khamar dan berjudi itu, dan menghalangi kamu dari mengingat Allah dan sembahyang; maka berhentilah kamu (dari mengerjakan pekerjaan itu).

Shakir:
The Shaitan only desires to cause enmity and hatred to spring in your midst by means of intoxicants and games of chance, and to keep you off from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. Will you then desist?

15. Fitnah zina.

Surah 24. An-Noor, Verse 23:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَرْمُونَ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ الْغَافِلَاتِ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ لُعِنُوا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

Indonesian:
Sesungguhnya orang-orang yang menuduh wanita yang baik-baik, yang lengah lagi beriman (berbuat zina), mereka kena laknat di dunia dan akhirat, dan bagi mereka azab yang besar,

Shakir:
Surely those who accuse chaste believing women, unaware (of the evil), are cursed in this world and the hereafter, and they shall have a grievous chastisement.

16. Penipuan pembahagian rampasan perang.

Surah 3. Aal-e-Imran, Verse 161:

وَمَا كَانَ لِنَبِيٍّ أَن يَغُلَّ وَمَن يَغْلُلْ يَأْتِ بِمَا غَلَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ثُمَّ تُوَفَّىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ

Indonesian:
Tidak mungkin seorang nabi berkhianat dalam urusan harta rampasan perang. Barangsiapa yang berkhianat dalam urusan rampasan perang itu, maka pada hari kiamat ia akan datang membawa apa yang dikhianatkannya itu, kemudian tiap-tiap diri akan diberi pembalasan tentang apa yang ia kerjakan dengan (pembalasan) setimpal, sedang mereka tidak dianiaya.

Shakir:
And it is not attributable to a prophet that he should act unfaithfully; and he who acts unfaithfully shall bring that in respect of which he has acted unfaithfully on the day of resurrection; then shall every soul be paid back fully what it has earned, and they shall not be dealt with unjustly.

17. Mencuri.

Surah 5. Al-Maeda, Verse 38:

وَالسَّارِقُ وَالسَّارِقَةُ فَاقْطَعُوا أَيْدِيَهُمَا جَزَاءً بِمَا كَسَبَا نَكَالًا مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ

Indonesian:
Laki-laki yang mencuri dan perempuan yang mencuri, potonglah tangan keduanya (sebagai) pembalasan bagi apa yang mereka kerjakan dan sebagai siksaan dari Allah. Dan Allah Maha Perkasa lagi Maha Bijaksana.

Shakir:
And (as for) the man who steals and the woman who steals, cut off their hands as a punishment for what they have earned, an exemplary punishment from Allah; and Allah is Mighty, Wise.

18. Memakan harta orang lain.

Surah 2. Al-Baqara, Verse 188:

وَلَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُم بَيْنَكُم بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتُدْلُوا بِهَا إِلَى الْحُكَّامِ لِتَأْكُلُوا فَرِيقًا مِّنْ أَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ بِالْإِثْمِ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

Indonesian:
Dan janganlah sebahagian kamu memakan harta sebahagian yang lain di antara kamu dengan jalan yang bathil dan (janganlah) kamu membawa (urusan) harta itu kepada hakim, supaya kamu dapat memakan sebahagian daripada harta benda orang lain itu dengan (jalan berbuat) dosa, padahal kamu mengetahui.

Shakir:
And do not swallow up your property among yourselves by false means, neither seek to gain access thereby to the judges, so that you may swallow up a part of the property of men wrongfully while you know.

19. Tidak amanah.

Surah 8. Al-Anfal, Verse 27:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَخُونُوا اللَّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ وَتَخُونُوا أَمَانَاتِكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

Indonesian:
Hai orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah kamu mengkhianati Allah dan Rasul (Muhammad) dan (juga) janganlah kamu mengkhianati amanat-amanat yang dipercayakan kepadamu, sedang kamu mengetahui.

Shakir:
O you who believe! be not unfaithful to Allah and the Apostle, nor be unfaithful to your trusts while you know.

20. Prasangka buruk dan curi dengar.

Surah 49. Al-Hujraat, Verse 12:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اجْتَنِبُوا كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الظَّنِّ إِنَّ بَعْضَ الظَّنِّ إِثْمٌ وَلَا تَجَسَّسُوا وَلَا يَغْتَب بَّعْضُكُم بَعْضًا أَيُحِبُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَن يَأْكُلَ لَحْمَ أَخِيهِ مَيْتًا فَكَرِهْتُمُوهُ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَوَّابٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Indonesian:
Hai orang-orang yang beriman, jauhilah kebanyakan purba-sangka (kecurigaan), karena sebagian dari purba-sangka itu dosa. Dan janganlah mencari-cari keburukan orang dan janganlah menggunjingkan satu sama lain. Adakah seorang diantara kamu yang suka memakan daging saudaranya yang sudah mati? Maka tentulah kamu merasa jijik kepadanya. Dan bertakwalah kepada Allah. Sesungguhnya Allah Maha Penerima Taubat lagi Maha Penyayang.

Shakir:
O you who believe! avoid most of suspicion, for surely suspicion in some cases is a sin, and do not spy nor let some of you backbite others. Does one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? But you abhor it; and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, surely Allah is Oft-returning (to mercy), Merciful.

21. Lelaki sebagai pemimpin dan isteri taat kepada suami.

Surah 4. An-Nisa, Verse 34:

الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَبِمَا أَنفَقُوا مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ وَاللَّاتِي تَخَافُونَ نُشُوزَهُنَّ فَعِظُوهُنَّ وَاهْجُرُوهُنَّ فِي الْمَضَاجِعِ وَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلَا تَبْغُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلًا إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرًا

Indonesian:
Kaum laki-laki itu adalah pemimpin bagi kaum wanita, oleh karena Allah telah melebihkan sebahagian mereka (laki-laki) atas sebahagian yang lain (wanita), dan karena mereka (laki-laki) telah menafkahkan sebagian dari harta mereka. Sebab itu maka wanita yang saleh, ialah yang taat kepada Allah lagi memelihara diri ketika suaminya tidak ada, oleh karena Allah telah memelihara (mereka). Wanita-wanita yang kamu khawatirkan nusyuznya, maka nasehatilah mereka dan pisahkanlah mereka di tempat tidur mereka, dan pukullah mereka. Kemudian jika mereka mentaatimu, maka janganlah kamu mencari-cari jalan untuk menyusahkannya. Sesungguhnya Allah Maha Tinggi lagi Maha Besar.

Shakir:
Men are the maintainers of women because Allah has made some of them to excel others and because they spend out of their property; the good women are therefore obedient, guarding the unseen as Allah has guarded; and (as to) those on whose part you fear desertion, admonish them, and leave them alone in the sleeping-places and beat them; then if they obey you, do not seek a way against them; surely Allah is High, Great.

22. Tidak berlaku adil.

Surah 42. Ash-Shura, Verse 42:

إِنَّمَا السَّبِيلُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَظْلِمُونَ النَّاسَ وَيَبْغُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

Indonesian:
Sesungguhnya dosa itu atas orang-orang yang berbuat zalim kepada manusia dan melampaui batas di muka bumi tanpa hak. Mereka itu mendapat azab yang pedih.

Shakir:
The way (to blame) is only against those who oppress men and revolt in the earth unjustly; these shall have a painful punishment.

23. Berbohong.

Surah 16. An-Nahl, Verse 62:

وَيَجْعَلُونَ لِلَّهِ مَا يَكْرَهُونَ وَتَصِفُ أَلْسِنَتُهُمُ الْكَذِبَ أَنَّ لَهُمُ الْحُسْنَىٰ لَا جَرَمَ أَنَّ لَهُمُ النَّارَ وَأَنَّهُم مُّفْرَطُونَ

Indonesian:
Dan mereka menetapkan bagi Allah apa yang mereka sendiri membencinya, dan lidah mereka mengucapkan kedustaan, yaitu bahwa sesungguhnya merekalah yang akan mendapat kebaikan. Tiadalah diragukan bahwa nerakalah bagi mereka, dan sesungguhnya mereka segera dimasukkan (ke dalamnya).

Shakir:
And they ascribe to Allah what they (themselves) hate and their tongues relate the lie that they shall have the good; there is no avoiding it that for them is the fire and that they shall be sent before.

FROM WEBSITE.

Muslims see sin as anything that goes against the commands of Allah (God), a breach of the laws and norms laid down by religion.[1] Islam teaches that sin is an act and not a state of being. It is believed that Allah weighs an individual’s good deeds and against his or her sins on the Day of Judgement and punishes those individuals whose evil deeds outweigh their good deeds. These individuals are thought to be sentenced to afterlife in the fires of جهنم jahannam (Hell).

The Quran describes these sins throughout the text and demonstrates that some sins are more punishable than others. A clear distinction is made between major and minor sins (53:31-32), indicating that if an individual stays away from the major sins, then he/she will be forgiven of the minor sins.[1] Regardless, Islam teaches that God is merciful and individuals can be forgiven of their sins if they repent.[1]

Surah 53. An-Najm, Verse 31:

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ لِيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاءُوا بِمَا عَمِلُوا وَيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا بِالْحُسْنَى

Indonesian:
Dan hanya kepunyaan Allah-lah apa yang ada di langit dan apa yang ada di bumi supaya Dia memberi balasan kepada orang-orang yang berbuat jahat terhadap apa yang telah mereka kerjakan dan memberi balasan kepada orang-orang yang berbuat baik dengan pahala yang lebih baik (surga).

Shakir:
And Allah’s is what is in the heavens and what is in the earth, that He may reward those who do evil according to what they do, and (that) He may reward those who do good with goodness.

Surah 53. An-Najm, Verse 32:

الَّذِينَ يَجْتَنِبُونَ كَبَائِرَ الْإِثْمِ وَالْفَوَاحِشَ إِلَّا اللَّمَمَ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ وَاسِعُ الْمَغْفِرَةِ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِكُمْ إِذْ أَنشَأَكُم مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ وَإِذْ أَنتُمْ أَجِنَّةٌ فِي بُطُونِ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ فَلَا تُزَكُّوا أَنفُسَكُمْ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنِ اتَّقَىٰ

Indonesian:
(Yaitu) orang-orang yang menjauhi dosa-dosa besar dan perbuatan keji yang selain dari kesalahan-kesalahan kecil. Sesungguhnya Tuhanmu maha luas ampunan-Nya. Dan Dia lebih mengetahui (tentang keadaan)mu ketika Dia menjadikan kamu dari tanah dan ketika kamu masih janin dalam perut ibumu; maka janganlah kamu mengatakan dirimu suci. Dialah yang paling mengetahui tentang orang yang bertakwa.

Shakir:
Those who keep aloof from the great sins and the indecencies but the passing idea; surely your Lord is liberal in forgiving. He knows you best when He brings you forth from the earth and when you are embryos in the wombs of your mothers; therefore do not attribute purity to your souls; He knows him best who guards (against evil).

Islam recognizes two kinds of sin (khati’ah): dhanb, a fault or shortcoming which is to be sanctioned; and ithm, a willful transgression which is to be punished. [2]

Contents
Semantic analysis of sin in the Qur’an
Dhanb
Ithm
Khati’ah
Jurm
Junah/Haraj
Repentance of sin
Major sins: Al-Kaba’ir
Sins or Actions that leads to sins
References
Semantic analysis of sin in the Qur’anEdit

The Quran uses different words throughout the text to describe sin. The difference in the meanings of these words is subtle and often not recognizable to the common reader. However, commentators believe that the choice of words to describe sin in Quranic verses plays an important role in classifying sins.[3]
The five main words scholars have studied to describe sin in the Quran are
1) Dhanb (ذُنُوبَنَا)
2) Ithm (إِثْمَ)
3) Khati’ah (خَطِيئَةً)
4) Jurm (أَجْرَمُوا)
5) Junah/Haraj (جُنَاحَ)
By analyzing these words, scholars have come to determine that these words are associated with different sins and have different meanings in the Quran.

Dhanb (ذُنُوبَنَا)
Dhanb (plural dhunub) is frequently applied to heinous sins committed against God. One of the main examples of Dhanb in the Quran is of “crying lies of God’s signs”, or having excessive pride that prevents an individual from believing the signs of God.[3]

For in God’s sight are (all) his servants, (namely), those who say: ‘Our Lord, we have indeed believed: forgive us, then, our sins (“dhunub”), and save us from the agony of the Fire.’

— Quran 3: 15-16[4]

Surah 3. Aal-e-Imran, Verse 16:

الَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا إِنَّنَا آمَنَّا فَاغْفِرْ لَنَا ذُنُوبَنَا وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ

Indonesian:
(Yaitu) orang-orang yang berdoa: Ya Tuhan kami, sesungguhnya kami telah beriman, maka ampunilah segala dosa kami dan peliharalah kami dari siksa neraka,”

Shakir:
Those who say: Our Lord! surely we believe, therefore forgive us our faults and save us from the chastisement of the fire.

This use of dhanb in the Quran exemplifies that this type of sin is punishable in the afterlife. In fact, dhanb is considered a ‘great’ sin and is often used in the Quran to contrast with sayyi’a, which denotes a ‘smaller’ sin.[3] The Quran states that if you avoid these great sins, your lesser evil deeds or sayyi’at will be forgiven.

If you avoid great sins (kaba’ir or dhanb) which are forbidden you, We will remit from you your evil deeds (sayyi’a).

— Quran 4: 31 [3]

Surah 4. An-Nisa, Verse 31:

إِن تَجْتَنِبُوا كَبَائِرَ مَا تُنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ نُكَفِّرْ عَنكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَنُدْخِلْكُم مُّدْخَلًا كَرِيمًا

Indonesian:
Jika kamu menjauhi dosa-dosa besar di antara dosa-dosa yang dilarang kamu mengerjakannya, niscaya Kami hapus kesalahan-kesalahanmu (dosa-dosamu yang kecil) dan Kami masukkan kamu ke tempat yang mulia (surga).

Shakir:
If you shun the great sins which you are forbidden, We will do away with your small sins and cause you to enter an honorable place of entering.

Ithm (إِثْمَ)
Some scholars believe the basic meaning of ithm to be an unlawful deed that is committed intentionally. This contrasts to dhanb in that dhanb can be both intentional and unintentional. However, this definition is somewhat nebulous and the best description of the word is based on the contextual situations.[3] In the Quran, ithm is found quite frequently in legislative descriptions. For example, falsely accusing your own wife in order to gain money is constituted as an ithm (Quran 4: 24/20). However, ithm is also used in connection with haram, or committing an unlawful deed, a taboo, such as consuming food or drink that is forbidden by god:

They will ask thee about wine and maysir. Say, ‘In both of them there is great sin (ithm) and also some uses for men, but their sin is greater than their usefulness.’

— Quran 2: 168/173[3]

Surah 2. Al-Baqara, Verse 173:

إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةَ وَالدَّمَ وَلَحْمَ الْخِنزِيرِ وَمَا أُهِلَّ بِهِ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلَا عَادٍ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Indonesian:
Sesungguhnya Allah hanya mengharamkan bagimu bangkai, darah, daging babi, dan binatang yang (ketika disembelih) disebut (nama) selain Allah. Tetapi barangsiapa dalam keadaan terpaksa (memakannya) sedang dia tidak menginginkannya dan tidak (pula) melampaui batas, maka tidak ada dosa baginya. Sesungguhnya Allah Maha Pengampun lagi Maha Penyayang.

Shakir:
He has only forbidden you what dies of itself, and blood, and flesh of swine, and that over which any other (name) than (that of) Allah has been invoked; but whoever is driven to necessity, not desiring, nor exceeding the limit, no sin shall be upon him; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

Ithm is also associated with what is considered the worst sin of all, shirk.[3] Shirk signifies the accepting of a presence of other divinities at the side of God.[5] The Quran states that:

He who associates with God has surely forged a great sin (ithm).

— Quran 4: 53/50 [3]

Surah 4. An-Nisa, Verse 50:

انظُرْ كَيْفَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ وَكَفَىٰ بِهِ إِثْمًا مُّبِينًا

Indonesian:
Perhatikanlah, betapakah mereka mengada-adakan dusta terhadap Allah? Dan cukuplah perbuatan itu menjadi dosa yang nyata (bagi mereka).

Shakir:
See how they forge the lie against Allah, and this is sufficient as a manifest sin.

This association with shirk is noteworthy for shirk is considered unforgivable if not repented of.

God forgiveth not (the sin of) joining other gods to Him; but He forgiveth whom He pleaseth other sins that this: one who joines other gods with God hath strayed far, far away.

— Quran 4:116[4]

Surah 4. An-Nisa, Verse 116:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا

Indonesian:
Sesungguhnya Allah tidak mengampuni dosa mempersekutukan (sesuatu) dengan Dia, dan dia mengampuni dosa yang selain syirik bagi siapa yang dikehendaki-Nya. Barangsiapa yang mempersekutukan (sesuatu) dengan Allah, maka sesungguhnya ia telah tersesat sejauh-jauhnya.

Shakir:
Surely Allah does not forgive that anything should be associated with Him, and He forgives what is besides this to whom He pleases; and whoever associates anything with Allah, he indeed strays off into a remote error.

Khati’ah (خَطِيئَةً)
Khati’ah is considered by many scholars to be a “moral lapse” or a “mistake” [6] This interpretation has led some scholars to believe that Khati’ah is a lesser sin than ithm; however, the word Khati’ah is frequently used in conjunction with ithm in the Quran.[3]

Whoso, having committed a khati’ah or an ithm, throws it upon the innocent, has burdened himself with calumny and an obvious sin (ithm).

— Quran 4:112[3]

Surah 4. An-Nisa, Verse 112:

وَمَن يَكْسِبْ خَطِيئَةً أَوْ إِثْمًا ثُمَّ يَرْمِ بِهِ بَرِيئًا فَقَدِ احْتَمَلَ بُهْتَانًا وَإِثْمًا مُّبِينًا

Indonesian:
Dan barangsiapa yang mengerjakan kesalahan atau dosa, kemudian dituduhkannya kepada orang yang tidak bersalah, maka sesungguhnya ia telah berbuat suatu kebohongan dan dosa yang nyata.

Shakir:
And whoever commits a fault or a sin, then accuses of it one innocent, he indeed takes upon himself the burden of a calumny and a manifest sin.

This Quranic verse indicates that khati’ah is considered an ithm, a grave sin. In fact, the word khati’ah is associated with some of the most heinous religious sins in the Quran.[3] In one Quranic verse this word is used to describe the sin of slaying one’s own children for fear of poverty. (Quran 17:33/31). Scholars believe that dhanb or ithm could be used in place of khati’ah in this instance;[3] however, the word choice indicates that khati’ah is more than just a moral lapse or mistake and is punishable.

Jurm (أَجْرَمُوا)
The word Jurum is often considered to be a synonym of dhanb for it is used to describe some of the same sins: crying lies of God and not believing the signs of God.[3] In the Quran, the word mostly appears in the form of mujrim, one who commits a jurm. These individuals are described in the Quran as having arrogance towards the believers.

Behold, those who commit jurm used to laugh at those who believed, winking one at another when they passed them by, and when they went back to their own fold, they returned jesting, and when they saw them they used to say, ‘Lo, these have indeed gone astray!

— Quran 83: 29-32[3]

Surah 83. Al-Mutaffifin, Verse 29:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ أَجْرَمُوا كَانُوا مِنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يَضْحَكُونَ

Indonesian:
Sesungguhnya orang-orang yang berdosa, adalah mereka yang menertawakan orang-orang yang beriman.

Shakir:
Surely they who are guilty used to laugh at those who believe.

Junah/Haraj (جُنَاحَ)
Junah and Haraj have a similar meaning to that of ithm, a sin that warrants a punishment. In fact, these words are used almost interchangeably with ithm in the same chapters in the Quran. Like ithm, these words are found frequently in legislative portions of the Quran, particularly relating to regulations regarding marriage and divorce.[3]

It is no sin (junah) for you that you offer proposal of marriage to women or keep it secret.

— Quran 2:235[3]

Surah 2. Al-Baqara, Verse 235:

وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا عَرَّضْتُم بِهِ مِنْ خِطْبَةِ النِّسَاءِ أَوْ أَكْنَنتُمْ فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ أَنَّكُمْ سَتَذْكُرُونَهُنَّ وَلَٰكِن لَّا تُوَاعِدُوهُنَّ سِرًّا إِلَّا أَن تَقُولُوا قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا وَلَا تَعْزِمُوا عُقْدَةَ النِّكَاحِ حَتَّىٰ يَبْلُغَ الْكِتَابُ أَجَلَهُ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ فَاحْذَرُوهُ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ

Indonesian:
Dan tidak ada dosa bagi kamu meminang wanita-wanita itu dengan sindiran atau kamu menyembunyikan (keinginan mengawini mereka) dalam hatimu. Allah mengetahui bahwa kamu akan menyebut-nyebut mereka, dalam pada itu janganlah kamu mengadakan janji kawin dengan mereka secara rahasia, kecuali sekedar mengucapkan (kepada mereka) perkataan yang ma’ruf. Dan janganlah kamu berazam (bertetap hati) untuk beraqad nikah, sebelum habis ‘iddahnya. Dan ketahuilah bahwasanya Allah mengetahui apa yang ada dalam hatimu; maka takutlah kepada-Nya, dan ketahuilah bahwa Allah Maha Pengampun lagi Maha Penyantun.

Shakir:
And there is no blame on you respecting that which you speak indirectly in the asking of (such) women in marriage or keep (the proposal) concealed within your minds; Allah knows that you will mention them, but do not give them a promise in secret unless you speak in a lawful manner, and do not confirm the marriage tie until the writing is fulfilled, and know that Allah knows what is in your minds, therefore beware of Him, and know that Allah is Forgiving, Forbearing.

Repentance of sin

See also: Repentance in Islam
According to Islam, one can be forgiven of sins through genuine tawbah (repentance) which literally means “to return.”

Ask your Lord for forgiveness, then turn back to Him.

— Qur’an, sura 11, ayat 3[7]
Unlike the Catholic concept of atonement, tawbah does not entail formal, eccelesiastical confession to a religious leader.[8] Like Protestantism, Islam allows followers to repent directly to God. In addition, while Christianity and Islam considers humans as prone to sin, Islam ultimately views them as responsible for their actions and refutes the Christian concept of original sin.

For man’s very soul incites him to evil unless my Lord shows mercy.

— Qur’an, sura 12, ayat 53[9]

Surah 12. Yusuf, Verse 53:

وَمَا أُبَرِّئُ نَفْسِي إِنَّ النَّفْسَ لَأَمَّارَةٌ بِالسُّوءِ إِلَّا مَا رَحِمَ رَبِّي إِنَّ رَبِّي غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Indonesian:
Dan aku tidak membebaskan diriku (dari kesalahan), karena sesungguhnya nafsu itu selalu menyuruh kepada kejahatan, kecuali nafsu yang diberi rahmat oleh Tuhanku. Sesungguhnya Tuhanku Maha Pengampun lagi Maha Penyanyang.

Shakir:
And I do not declare myself free, most surely (man’s) self is wont to command (him to do) evil, except such as my Lord has had mercy on, surely my Lord is Forgiving, Merciful.

More so, in Islam Muslims are discouraged from confessing their sins and sharing the wrongdoings of others. [10]

Also, according to Islam, Blood sacrifice cannot add to Divine Grace nor replace the necessity of repentance. However, sacrifice is done to help the poor and to remember Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son at God’s command.

It is not their meat nor their blood that reaches Allah. it is your piety that reaches Him…”

— Qur’an, sura 22, ayat 37[11]

Surah 22. Al-Hajj, Verse 37:

لَن يَنَالَ اللَّهَ لُحُومُهَا وَلَا دِمَاؤُهَا وَلَٰكِن يَنَالُهُ التَّقْوَىٰ مِنكُمْ كَذَٰلِكَ سَخَّرَهَا لَكُمْ لِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

Indonesian:
Daging-daging unta dan darahnya itu sekali-kali tidak dapat mencapai (keridhaan) Allah, tetapi ketakwaan dari kamulah yang dapat mencapainya. Demikianlah Allah telah menundukkannya untuk kamu supaya kamu mengagungkan Allah terhadap hidayah-Nya kepada kamu. Dan berilah kabar gembira kepada orang-orang yang berbuat baik.

Shakir:
There does not reach Allah their flesh nor their blood, but to Him is acceptable the guarding (against evil) on your part; thus has He made them subservient to you, that you may magnify Allah because He has guided you aright; and give good news to those who do good (to others).

When a human has violated another human’s rights, ḥuqūq al-ʿibād, compensation is necessary in order to show that one has made amends.

When a human has offended or disobeyed God, ḥuqūq Allāh, penitence, remorse, and resolution are necessary in order to show that one is sincere, and will not repeat the wrongdoing in the future.

According to Shaddad ibn Aws:

Shall I not how to seek forgiveness? O Allah, You are my Lord, there is no God but You; for You created me and I am Your servant; and I am upon Your covenant and Your promise as much as I am able; I seek refuge in You from the evil of what I have done; I acknowledge Your favors upon me and I recognize my sins, so forgive my sins; verily, none can forgive sins but You.

— Sunan At-Tirmidhi, Book of Supplications, Number 3393, Hasan[12]
From a traditionalist perspective, sin is applied to an individual’s actions. Through belief and good works, an individual can remove his/her sin and attain God’s good favor. Classical legal scholar Muhammad al-Shafi’i (767 – 820) derived this understanding from Quranic passages such as:[8]

But He will overlook the bad deeds of those who have faith, do good deeds, and believe in what has been sent down to Muhammad —the truth from their Lord —and He will put them into a good state.

— Qur’an, sura 47, ayat 2[13]

Surah 47. Muhammad, Verse 2:

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَآمَنُوا بِمَا نُزِّلَ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ كَفَّرَ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ وَأَصْلَحَ بَالَهُمْ

Indonesian:
Dan orang-orang mukmin dan beramal soleh serta beriman kepada apa yang diturunkan kepada Muhammad dan itulah yang haq dari Tuhan mereka, Allah menghapuskan kesalahan-kesalahan mereka dan memperbaiki keadaan mereka.

Shakir:
And (as for) those who believe and do good, and believe in what has been revealed to Muhammad, and it is the very truth from their Lord, He will remove their evil from them and improve their condition.

From a modernist perspective, sin has also been applied to a group or community’s collective behavior. Through public acknowledgement of wrongdoing, people can take responsibility for the lack of morality within their society and enact social reform. Egyptian reformer Muḥammad ʿAbduh (1849–1905) and his disciple Muḥammad Rashīd Ridā (1865–1935) derived this understanding from Quranic passages such as:[8]

Unless they repent, make amends, and declare the truth. I will certainly accept their repentance.

— Qur’an, sura 2, ayat 160[14]

Surah 2. Al-Baqara, Verse 160:

إِلَّا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا وَأَصْلَحُوا وَبَيَّنُوا فَأُولَٰئِكَ أَتُوبُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَنَا التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ

Indonesian:
kecuali mereka yang telah taubat dan mengadakan perbaikan dan menerangkan (kebenaran), maka terhadap mereka itulah Aku menerima taubatnya dan Akulah Yang Maha Menerima taubat lagi Maha Penyayang.

Shakir:
Except those who repent and amend and make manifest (the truth), these it is to whom I turn (mercifully); and I am the Oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful.

Other modern reformers, such as Sayyid Qutb, held that repentance involved a renewed, holistic commitment to Islam, rather than admission of sin for the sake of being pardoned of punishment. This understanding draws from classical Sufi thought, whereby one experiences a personality transformation and his/her sinful impulses are replaced by virtue.[8] Qutb derived this understanding from Quranic passages such as:

Those who repent, believe, and do good deeds: God will change the evil deeds of such people into good ones.

— Qur’an, sura 25 ayat 70[15]

Surah 25. Al-Furqan, Verse 70:

إِلَّا مَن تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ عَمَلًا صَالِحًا فَأُولَٰئِكَ يُبَدِّلُ اللَّهُ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ حَسَنَاتٍ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Indonesian:
kecuali orang-orang yang bertaubat, beriman dan mengerjakan amal saleh; maka itu kejahatan mereka diganti Allah dengan kebajikan. Dan adalah Allah maha Pengampun lagi Maha Penyayang.

Shakir:
Except him who repents and believes and does a good deed; so these are they of whom Allah changes the evil deeds to good ones; and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

Repentance for sin can be accomplished through acts such as, “fasting, giving charity, sacrificing an animal, and freeing a slave.”[16] In addition, going on the hajj can serve as a form of repentance.

According to Shaddad ibn Aws:

The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said, “The lesser pilgrimage unto the lesser pilgrimage will expiate whatever sins were committed between them; and the accepted pilgrimage has no reward other than Paradise.

— Sahih Bukhari, Book 27, Number 1 [17]
However, regardless of one’s outward deeds, God does not accept the forgiveness of those who are insincere in their repentance and only do so in order to avoid jahannam.

It is not true repentance when people continue to do evil until death confronts them and then say, ‘Now I repent.

— Qur’an, sura 4 ayat 18[18]

Surah 4. An-Nisa, Verse 18:

وَلَيْسَتِ التَّوْبَةُ لِلَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ السَّيِّئَاتِ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَهُمُ الْمَوْتُ قَالَ إِنِّي تُبْتُ الْآنَ وَلَا الَّذِينَ يَمُوتُونَ وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ أُولَٰئِكَ أَعْتَدْنَا لَهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا

Indonesian:
Dan tidaklah taubat itu diterima Allah dari orang-orang yang mengerjakan kejahatan (yang) hingga apabila datang ajal kepada seseorang di antara mereka, (barulah) ia mengatakan: “Sesungguhnya saya bertaubat sekarang”. Dan tidak (pula diterima taubat) orang-orang yang mati sedang mereka di dalam kekafiran. Bagi orang-orang itu telah Kami sediakan siksa yang pedih.

Shakir:
And repentance is not for those who go on doing evil deeds, until when death comes to one of them, he says: Surely now I repent; nor (for) those who die while they are unbelievers. These are they for whom We have prepared a painful chastisement.

Major sins: Al-Kaba’ir

The most heinous sins in Islam are known as al-Kaba’ir which translates to the great or majors one. While every sin is seen as an offense to Allah, the al-Kaba’ir are the gravest of the offenses.[1] Allah’s power is thought to be only eclipsed by his mercy and thus small sins are tacitly understood to be forgiven after repentance. Not every sin is equal however and some are thought to be more spiritually damning than others. The greatest of the sins described as al-Kaba’ir is the association of others with Allah or shirk.[19] Scholar differ as to how many major sins there are. In contrasting major sins with minor sins (al-sagha’ir), the eighth-century Shafi’i scholar Al-Dhahabi found the hadith collections of Sahih al-Bukhari and Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj listed seven major sins, while the tradition from Abd Allah ibn Abbas stated that there were closer to seventy major sins. [20]

The seven major sins in Islam are as follows:[21]

associating anything with Allah
witchcraft
killing one whom Allah has declared inviolate without a just case,
consuming the property of an orphan,
devouring usury,
turning back when the army advances, and
false accusation of chaste women who are believers but indiscreet.

Although many of the ideas for what is unacceptable overlap, the seven major sins of Islam differs from the seven deadly sins of Christianity. The Islamic sins refer more to specific undesirable behavior rather than to the general negative characteristics or actions of the cardinal Christian sins. Despite the similar names, the seven main sins in Islam are more comparable to the Ten Commandments rather than the seven deadly sins. They both provide the bottom line for believers in terms of what is acceptable behavior in the faith. The actions themselves differ most of the major crimes in Islam relate to subservience to Allah. Any form of polytheism is seen to be the most severe offense in the religion and all of the other transgressions are in some form of association with Allah. Witchcraft, for example, is the taking on of supernatural powers in order to make the practitioner a being above the normal human. This challenges the power of Allah as the person in question has superseded their mortal position to become something greater and akin to a god. The same can be said of murder, as ultimately the power to decide who shall live and die is believed to belong solely to Allah. Life is thought to be a gift from Allah and the unjust taking of life is a severe spiritual offense, as it is not only seen as morally wrong but also as an affront to God.

In addition to what Muslim scholars agree are the principal seven sins, the idea exists that the major sins extend far past the seven. These additional transgressions, potentially up to seventy, are not universally settled upon nor are they explicitly stated in the Qur’an, however they are thought to be implied by the text.[21] The supplementary sins as a whole lack the spiritual gravity of the original seven and include things such as drinking alcohol and eavesdropping.

Sins or Actions that leads to sins

Some actions are considered root of sins, some as mother of evils, some are called handiworks of Devil

Lying – root of sins

Obscenity [1]
Not controlling the tongue – A huge amount of the sins are from the tongue.[2] It involves back-biting, slandering, lying (similar to above), obscenity, foul language, insulting, etc
Alcoholism and intoxication. – mother of evil. Handiwork of Devil. Al-Quran, 5:90
Gambling – Handiwork of Devil. Al-Quran, 5:90
Dedication of stones – Handiwork of Devil. Al-Quran, 5:90
Divination of arrows – Handiwork of Devil. Al-Quran, 5:90
Shia concept: Egotism [3]

Difference of opinion, whether this is root of sins: Love of this world [4] [5]

References

“Oxford Islamic Studies Online”. Sin. Oxford University Press.
Glasse, Cyril. The New Encyclopedia of Islam. Altamira. p. 431. “In Islam sin is divided into two categories. The first is that of dhanb, which is a fault or shortcoming, a limitation, an inadvertencies, the consequence of which is a sanction rather than a punishment. Sin as dhanb is distinguished from willful transgression (ithm), which is more serious and clearly incurs punishment rather than sanction. … The term khati’ah is used in practice indiscriminately for both concepts of sin.”

Ituzsu, Toshiko (1966). Ethico-Religious Concepts in the Qur’an. Montreal: McGill University Press. pp. 193–249.
Ali, Adbullah Yusuf. The Holy Qur’an. p. 126.
Brill Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden Brill. 1997. pp. 484–486.
Brill Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden Brill. 1997. pp. 1106–09.
Quran 11:3
“Oxford Islamic Studies Online”. Repentance. Oxford University Press.
Quran 12:53
“Sins: to hide or to make public”. Islamic Etiquette. Islamic Etiquette.
Quran 22:37
Hadith, Sunan At-Tirmidhi, Book of Supplications, Number 3393
Quran 47:2
Quran 2:160
Quran 25:70
Mir, Mustansir (1987). Dictionary of Quranic Terms and Concepts. New York: Garland Publishing.
Hadith, Sahih Bukhari, Book 27, Number 1
Quran 4:18

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s